Learn More about CBD

What is CBD?

CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent, next to THC of the over 113 active ingredients of the cannabis plant. CBD products are derived from the hemp cannabis plant which has a mandated amount of less than 0.3% THC. CBD by itself it does not cause a “high”, or altered state of perception, as does THC. According to a report from the World Health Organization, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential.... To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”

How does CBD work?

Exactly how CBD exerts its therapeutic impact on a molecular level is still being actively studied. Cannabidiol is a pleiotropic molecule, meaning it produces many effects through multiple molecular pathways. The scientific literature has identified more than 65 molecular targets of CBD. Although CBD has little binding affinity for either of the two cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), cannabidiol modulates several non-cannabinoid receptors and ion channels. CBD also acts through various receptor-independent pathways—for example, by delaying the “reuptake” of endogenous neurotransmitters (such as anandamide and adenosine) and by enhancing or inhibiting the binding action of certain G-protein coupled receptors. All this is possible because of the biological endocannabinoid system within the human body.

Is CBD safe?

If an organic, plant-based medicine provided more lasting relief than pharmaceuticals, most people would make the switch in a heartbeat. The biggest question is whether CBD-based products are actually safe. Assuming the starting material was a quality product, which Leaf CBD is, CBD is completely safe and is considered to be non-toxic. Studies also concluded that daily doses of CBD (700mg) for 6 weeks did not induce any toxicity in patients. Meaning long-term daily consumption of CBD is also safe.

A 2001 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) study concluded that CBD “does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions.”

According to the World Health Organization (WHO),: Cannabidiol is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth or sprayed under the tongue appropriately. Cannabidiol in doses of up to 300 mg daily have been taken by mouth safely for up to 6 months. Higher doses of 1200-1500 mg daily have been taken by mouth safely for up to 4 weeks. A prescription cannabidiol product (Epidiolex) is approved to be taken by mouth in doses of up to 10-20 mg/kg daily. Cannabidiol sprays that are applied under the tongue have been used in doses of 2.5 mg for up to 2 weeks.

Some reported side effects of cannabidiol include dry mouth, low blood pressure, light headedness, and drowsiness. Signs of liver injury have also been reported in some patients, but this is less common.

Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking cannabidiol if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Parkinson’s disease: Some early research suggests that taking high doses of cannabidiol might make muscle movement and tremors worse in people with Parkinson’s disease.

Interactions with medications:

Major
Do not take this in combination with Clobazam. Clobazam is changed and broken down by the liver. Cannabidiol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down clobazam. This might increase the effects and side effects of clobazam.

Valproic acid Valproic acid can cause liver injury. Taking cannabidiol with valproic acid might increase the chance of liver injury. Discontinuation or reduction in dosage of cannabidiol and/or valproic acid might be needed.

Moderate
Be cautious with this combination. Eslicarbazepine Eslicarbazepine is changed and broken down by the body. Cannabidiol might decrease how quickly the body breaks down eslicarbazepine. This might increase levels of eslicarbazepine in the body by a small amount.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Cannabidiol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. In theory, using cannabidiol along with some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before using cannabidiol, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

CBD FAQ

What is broad spectrum CBD?
Broad spectrum CBD products contain an array of cannabinoids and terpenes but zero THC. Think of Broad Spectrum CBD as Full Spectrum without the THC. To create Broad Spectrum CBD, manufacturers will put their products through additional processing to isolate and remove as much trace amounts of THC possible while preserving the other natural cannabinoids and terpenes. Broad Spectrum CBD is an excellent choice for individuals that can’t have any traces of THC in their system, whether for medical, personal or legal reasons. 

Is CBD legal?
With the passing of the new 2018 Farm Bill, hemp and hemp-derived products have been officially removed from the purview of the Controlled Substances Act, such that they are no longer subject to Schedule I status. Meaning that so long as CBD is extracted from hemp and under a THC level of 0.3% and grown by licensed farmers in accordance with state and federal regulations, it is legal as a hemp product.

Will it be exposed in a drug test?
Most CBD products contain no or very little THC (mandated to be under 0.3%). Therefore, a person under the treatment of CBD products will generally not be exposed in a drug test. LEAF products are broad spectrum CBD products and have gone through additional processing to isolate and remove as much trace amounts of THC as possible while preserving the other natural cannabinoids and terpenes.

Water Soluble CBD

Molecules of oil are larger than that of water and therefore, oil and water don’t mix together.

Water is essential for life, the brain and the heart are composed of 73% water, with the lungs being 83%. Skin rates in at 64%, muscle and kidneys at 79% and even mineralized bone come in at 31% water. Water plays an active roll in various essential functions to keep the body working efficiently. Water is a vital nutrient to the life of every cell, it aids in regulation internal body temperatures, transportation of vital molecules, flushes the system of toxics, provides a cushion for the nervous stem including the brain and spinal cord, aids in joint lubrications and forms saliva, which is necessary for breaking down food. Given the high percentage of total water throughout our bodies, water-soluble compounds travel through the body faster and are absorbed more efficiently. Hemp oil has a poor absorption rate in the body in comparison to a water-based CBD formula.

Benefits of CBD water soluble formulations
Water soluble CBD can easily be mixed into beverages at essentially any desired concentration, it provides an exceptionally high bioavailability and therefore more pronounced therapeutic effects as the product is being absorbed more efficiently by the body.

With the intentions of providing our customers with a premium CBD tea product designed to optimize bioavailability and its therapeutic health benefits, LEAF is 100% THC-free broad-spectrum water-soluble CBD.

Fat aids in the absorption of the CBD within the small intestines, given this fact, enjoying premium LEAF tea with a small snack will enhance its desired effects.

What is CBD used for?

A survey from Brightfield Group and HelloMD covered 2,400 of HelloMD’s community of 150,000 members and did a deep dive into the usage of CBD products and their effectiveness. The most common reasons people used CBD were to treat insomnia, depression, anxiety and joint pain, according to Dr. Perry Solomon, the Chief Medical Officer of HelloMD. Forty-two percent of the CBD users said they had stopped using traditional medications like Tylenol pain relievers or prescription drugs like Vicodin and had switched to using cannabis instead. Eighty percent said that they found the products to be “very or extremely effective.” Only 3% or less found the product to be either ineffectual or only slightly effective.

CBD oil has potential to relieve chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression, and alleviate cancer symptoms, among several other benefits.

General preventative medicine
Protexcts the body against the damages of stress and aging.
Since CBD (cannabidiol) is so similar to the chemicals created by our own bodies, they are integrated better than many synthetic drugs. According to Bradley E. Alger, a leading scientist in the study of endocannabinoids with a PhD from Harvard in experimental psychology, “With complex actions in our immune system, nervous system, and virtually all of the body’s organs, the endocannabinoids are literally a bridge between body and mind. By understanding this system, we begin to see a mechanism that could connect brain activity and states of physical health and disease.”

Bradley E. Alger, “Getting High on the Endocannabinoid System,” Cerebrum: The Dana Forum on Brain Science (2013): 14.

Source: Leinow, Leonard and Birnbaum, Juliana. “The Ultimate Guide to CBD: Everything You Need to Know About the Miraculous Health Benefits of Cannabidiol.” Conscious Lifestyle Magazine. https://www.consciouslifestylemag.com/cbd-health-benefits/

Reduced risk of Diabetes &  Obesity
CBD on its own was shown in 2006 to lower the incidence of diabetes in lab rats, and in 2015 an Israeli-American biopharmaceutical collective began stage 2 trials related to using CBD to treat diabetes. Research has demonstrated that CBD benefits weight loss by helping the body convert white fat into weight-reducing brown fat, promoting no atherogenesis normal insulin production and sugar metabolism. Excess insulin promotes the conversion of sugars into stored fat and leads to weight gain and obesity. The research emerging about the interplay between cannabinoids and insulin regulation may lead to some major breakthroughs in the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Yann LeStrat and Bernard Le Foll, “Obesity and Cannabis Use: Results From 2 Representative National Surveys,” American Journal of Epidemiology 174, no. 8 (2011): 929–933. doi:10.1093/ aje/kwr200.

  1. Weiss, M. Zeira, S. Reich, M. Har-Noy, R. Mechoulam, S. Slavin, and R. Gallily, “Cannabidiol Lowers Incidence of Diabetes in Non-obese Diabetic Mice,” Autoimmunity 39, no. 2 (2006): 143–151.

Abigail Klein Leichman, “Cannabis Extract to Be Used to Treat Diabetes,” Israel 21c, April 21, 2015, www.israel21c.org/cannabis-extract -to-be-used-to-treat-diabetes/.

  1. J. Parray and J. W. Yun, “Cannabidiol Promotes Browning in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 416 (2016): 131–139.
  2. A. Penner, H. Buettner, and M. A. Mittleman, “Marijuana Use on Glucose, Insulin, and Insulin Resistance among US Adults,” American Journal of Medicine 126 (2013): 583–589.

Better Cholesterol Profiles & Lowered Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
A 2007 animal study on CBD effects showed it had a cardio-protective effect during heart attacks, and more details were published that year about the involvement of the CB1 and CB2 receptors in cardiovascular illness and health.

John C. Ashton and Paul F. Smith, “Cannabinoids and Cardiovascular Disease: The Outlook for Clinical Treatments,” Current Vascular Pharmacology 5, no. 3 (2007): 175–184. doi: 10.2174/157016107781024109.

Reduced Risk of Cancer
A 2012 study showed that animals treated with CBD were significantly less likely to develop colon cancer after being induced with carcinogens in a laboratory. Topical products can be used to treat and prevent skin cancers.

Gabriella Aviello, Barbara Romano, Francesca Borrelli, Raffaele Capasso, Laura Gallo, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, and Angelo A. Izzo, “Chemopreventive Effect of the Non- psychotropic Phytocannabinoid Cannabidiol on Experimental Colon Cancer,” Journal of Molecular Medicine 90, no. 8 (2012): 925–934. doi:10.1007/s00109-011-0856-x.

Helps Maintain a Healthy Brain
Cannabinoids are neuroprotective, meaning that they help maintain and regulate brain health. The effects are in part related to several actions they have on the brain, including the removal of damaged cells. CBD works to reduce glutamate toxicity. Over stimulated nerve cells due to increased glutamate ultimately leads to neuronal cell damage or death. CBD has also been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on the brain. As the brain ages, the creation of new neurons slows down significantly. In order to maintain brain health and prevent degenerative diseases, new cells need to be continuously created. A 2008 study showed that low doses of CBD encouraged the creation of new nerve cells in animal models, even in aging brains

Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, “The Endocannabinoid System in Normal and Pathological Brain Ageing,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 367, no. 1607 (2012): 3326–3341. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0388.

Gary L. Wenk, “Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease,” Animal Models of Neurological Disease I (1992): 29–64, doi:10.1385/0-89603-208-6:29.

 

Protects against bone disease and broken bones
Cannabinoids have a key role in bone metabolism, the process where old bone material is replaced by new at a rate of about 10 percent per year. This process is crucial to maintaining strong, healthy bones over time. CBD has been shown to block an enzyme that destroys bone- building compounds in the body, reducing the risk of age-related bone diseases like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. In both of those diseases, the body is no longer creating new bone and cartilage cells. CBD helps facilitate the process of new bone-cell formation, which is why it has been found to shorten healing time of broken bones and, due to a stronger fracture callus, decrease the likelihood of re-fracturing the bone (bones are 35–50 percent stronger than those of non-treated subjects).

  1. M. Kogan, E. Melamed, E. Wasserman, B. Raphael, A. Breuer, K. S. Stok, R. Sondergaard, A. V. Escudero, S. Baraghithy, M. Attar-Namdar, S. Friedlander-Barenboim, N. Mathavan, H. Isaksson, R. Mechoulam, R. Müller, A. Bajayo, Y. Gabet, and I. Bab, “Cannabidiol, A Major Nonpsychotropic Cannabis Constituent, Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl

Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts,” Journal of Mineral and Bone Research 30, no. 10 (October 2015): 1905–1913.

Skin Protectant
The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. When applied topically as an infused lotion, serum, oil, or salve, the antioxidant (more powerful than vitamins E and C) in CBD products have shown to have many benefits and can repair damage from free radicals like UV rays and environmental pollutants.

  1. J. Hampson, M. Grimaldi, J. Axelrod, and D. Wink, “Cannabidiol and (−)∆9- Tetrahydrocannabinol Are Neuroprotective Antioxidants,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, no. 14 (1998): 8268–8273.

Anti-inflammatory benefits
CBD engages with the endocannabinoid system in many organs throughout the body, helping to reduce inflammation systemically. The therapeutic potential is impressively wide-ranging, as inflammation is involved in a broad spectrum of diseases, including Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and many more.

Anxiety and Stress
The oral use of cannabinoid compounds including CBD for anxiety appears in a Vedic text dated around 2000 BCE, and it is one of the most common uses of the plant across various cultures. CBD has been shown in a number of animal and human studies to reduce anxiety. The stress-reducing effect appears to be related to activity in both the limbic and paralimbic brain areas. A 2012 research review assessed a number of international studies and concluded that CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety, and in particular social anxiety, in multiple studies.

  1. A. Grierson, “The Hemp Plant in Sanskrit and Hindi Literature,” Indian Antiquary (September 1894): 260–262.

A.R. Schier, N. P. Ribeiro, A. C. Silva, J. E. Hallak, J. A. Crippa, A. E. Nardi, and A. W. Zuardi, “Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent, As an Anxiolytic Drug,” Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatri 34, suppl. 1 (2012): S104–S110. PubMed PMID: 22729452.

  1. C. Campos, Z. Ortega, J. Palazuelos, M. V. Fogaça, D. C. Aguiar, J. Díaz-Alonso, S. Ortega- Gutiérrez, H. Vázquez-Villa, F. A. Moreira, M. Guzmán, I. Galve-Roperh, and F. S. Guimarães, “The Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol on Chronically Stressed Mice Depends on Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 16, no. 6 (2013): 1407–1419. doi:10.1017/S1461145712001502.

Depression and Mood Disorders
Commonly used pharmaceuticals for depression often target serotonin, a chemical messenger believed to have a key role in mood stabilization. The neural network of the endocannabinoid system works similarly to the way that serotonin, dopamine, and other systems do, and, according to some research, cannabinoids have an effect on serotonin levels. A 2016 study concluded that “CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signaling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism.” CBD might especially be effective for depression related to chronic stress.

  1. N. Hill, C. J. Hillard, F. R. Bambico, S. Patel, B. B. Gorzalka, and G. Gobbi, “The Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System for the Development of a Novel Class of

Antidepressants,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 30, no. 9 (2009): 484–493. doi:10.1016/ j.tips.2009.06.006.

  1. N. Hill, C. J. Hillard, F. R. Bambico, S. Patel, B. B. Gorzalka, and G. Gobbi, “The Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System for the Development of a Novel Class of Antidepressants,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 30, no. 9 (2009): 484–493. doi:10.1016/ j.tips.2009.06.006.
  2. N. Hill, C. J. Hillard, F. R. Bambico, S. Patel, B. B. Gorzalka, and G. Gobbi, “The Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System for the Development of a Novel Class of Antidepressants,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 30, no. 9 (2009): 484–493. doi:10.1016/ j.tips.2009.06.006.
  3. H. Ashton, P. B. Moore, P. Gallagher, and A. H. Young, “Cannabinoids in Bipolar Affective Disorder: A Review and Discussion of Their Therapeutic Potential,” Journal of Psychopharmacology 19, no. 3 (2005): 293–300.

A.Zuardi, J. Crippa, S. Dursun, S. Morais, J. Vilela, R. Sanches, and J. Hallak, “Cannabidiol Was Ineffective for Manic Episode of Bipolar Affective Disorder,” Journal of Psychopharmacology 24, no. 1 (2010): 135– 137. doi:10.1177/0269881108096521.

  1. R. de Mello Schier, N. P. de Oliveira Ribeiro, D. S. Coutinho, S. Machado, O. Arias-Carrión, J. A. Crippa, A. W. Zuardi, A. E. Nardi, and A. C. Silva, “Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa,” CNS Neurol Disorders – Drug Targets 13, no. 6 (2014): 953–960.

Pain
Pain is the most common reason consumers are using CBD. Various studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is both centrally and peripherally involved in the processing of pain signals. CBD can be used along with opioid medications to synergistically reduce pain as well as the amount of opioids needed. CBD has the potential to lessen tolerance, cravings and the severity of withdrawal symptoms. At least ten randomized, controlled trials on over one thousand patients have demonstrated efficacy of cannabinoids for neuropathic pain of various origins. When pain is localized, topical products can be applied. A 2011 study showed that CBD stimulated descending pain-blocking pathways in the nervous system and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. Authors concluded that the cannabinoids “might represent useful therapeutic agents with multiple mechanisms of action.” The following year, researchers reported that CBD significantly suppressed chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain without causing apparent analgesic tolerance in animals.

Ethan Russo and Andrea Hohmann, “Role of Cannabinoids in Pain Management,” in Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical, Interventional and Integrative Approaches, ed. Timothy R. Deer et al. (New York: Springer, 2013), 181–197.

  1. Maione, F. Piscitelli, L. Gatta, D. Vita, L. De Petrocellis, E. Palazzo, V. de Novellis, and V. Di Marzo, “Non-psychoactive Cannabinoids Modulate the Descending Pathway of Antinociception in Anaesthetized Rats through Several Mechanisms of Action,” British Journal of Phramacology 162, no. 3 (2011): 584. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01063.x.
  2. Xiong, T. Cui, K. Cheng, F. Yang, S. R. Chen, D. Willenbring, Y. Guan, H. L. Pan, K. Ren, Y. Xu, and L. Zhang, “Cannabinoids Suppress Infammatory and Neuropathic Pain by Targeting α3

Glycine Receptors,” Journal of Experimental Medicine 209, no. 6 (2012): 1121–1134. doi: 10.1084 /jem.20120242.

Sleep Disorders
Effects of CBD on animal models in both lights-on and lights-off environments found that CBD has the ability to increase alertness with the lights on and had no discernible effects on lights- off sleep. The study’s authors concluded that CBD might actually hold therapeutic promise for those with excessive daytime sleepiness. CBD aids in providing the relaxation and calm for the mental as well as the physical body, easing the ability to fall asleep and stay asleep. CBD taken as part of a bedtime regime helps produce a restful sleep, and taken during the daytime aids in improving alertness. This bidirectional effect of CBD is the result of balancing the endocannabinoid system. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by the loss of complete muscle relaxation during REM sleep, associated with nightmares and physical activity during dreaming. Four patients in a case series treated with CBD in 2014 had prompt and substantial reduction in the frequency of RBD-related events without side effects.

  1. W. Carley, S. Paviovic, M. Janelidze, and M. Radulovacki, “Functional Role for Cannabinoids in Respiratory Stability during Sleep,” Sleep 25, no. 4 (2002): 391–398. PubMed PMID: 12071539.
  2. H. N. Chagas, A. L. Eckeli, A. W. Zuardi, M. A. Pena-Pereira, M. A. Sobreira-Neto, E. T. Sobreira, M. R. Camilo, M. M. Bergamaschi, C. H. Schenck, J. E. C. Hallak, V. Tumas, and J. A. S. Crippa, “Cannabidiol Can Improve Complex Sleep-Related Behaviours Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Case Series,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 39 (2014): 564–566. doi:10.1111/jcpt. 12179.